Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. Vitamin A is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. Vitamin A also helps the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs work properly.
There are two different types of vitamin A. The first type, preformed vitamin A, is found in meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. The second type, provitamin A, is found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based products. The most common type of provitamin A in foods and dietary supplements is beta-carotene.
RDA 900 ug men 700 ug women One serving of Spirulina 92,000 iu
Vitamin E is a nutrient that’s important to vision, reproduction, and the health of your blood, brain and skin.
Vitamin E also has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are substances that might protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. If you take vitamin E for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.
Foods rich in vitamin E include canola oil, olive oil, margarine, almonds and peanuts. You can also get vitamin E from meats, dairy, leafy greens and fortified cereals. Vitamin E is also available as an oral supplement in capsules or drops.
Vitamin E deficiency can cause nerve pain (neuropathy).The recommended daily amount of vitamin E for adults is 15 milligrams a day.
RDA 22 iu One serving of Spirulina 4 iu
Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that play a role in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels.
The body needs vitamin K to produce prothrombin, a protein and clotting factor that is important in blood clotting and bone metabolism. People who use blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin, or Coumadin, should not start consuming additional vitamin K without first asking a doctor.
RDA 182 mcg Men, 164 mcg Women One serving of Spirulina 800 mcg
Thiamine is an essential nutrient that all tissues of the body need to function properly. Thiamine was the first B vitamin that scientists discovered. This is why its name carries the number 1. Like the other B vitamins, thiamine is water-soluble and helps the body turn food into energy.
- individual supplements
The body needs thiamine to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is a molecule that transports energy within cells.
RDA 1.1 mg One serving of Spirulina 1.4 mg
Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is one of the eight B-complex vitamins. Like other B vitamins, it plays a role in energy production in the body, but also has many other important uses. Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin that is flushed out of the body daily, so it must be restored each day. The best way to get this vitamin is by eating foods that are rich in riboflavin. Riboflavin is found in eggs, nuts, dairy products, meats, broccoli, brewer’s yeast, Brussel sprouts, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soybeans, green leafy vegetables and whole grain and enriched cereals and bread.
Riboflavin is a vitamin that is needed for growth and overall good health. It helps the body break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats to produce energy, and it allows oxygen to be used by the body.
“Riboflavin is also used for the development and function of the skin, lining of the digestive tract, blood cells and other vital organs,” Dr. Sherry Ross, women’s
Vitamin B2 is also important for eye health. According to the University of Michigan, this vitamin is needed to protect glutathione, which is an important antioxidant in the eye. The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) reports that eating a diet rich in riboflavin can lower the risk of developing cataracts. Taking supplements containing riboflavin and niacin may also be helpful in preventing cataracts.
Levels of certain vitamins, chemicals and minerals in the bloodstream seem to be dependent on healthy levels of B2, as well. For example, riboflavin changes vitamin B6 and folate (vitamin B9) into forms that the body can use. According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, riboflavin is important to how the body processes iron. Without it, research shows that the body is more likely to develop anemia. Taking riboflavin can also reduce homocysteine levels in the blood by 26 to 40 percent, according to the NLM.
B2 may be important to pregnancy health, as well. According to a study by the University Women’s Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, riboflavin deficiency may be a factor in causing preeclampsia, a condition that causes high blood pressure in late pregnancy.
Those suffering from migraines may find that taking doses of B2 may help. A study by the department of neurology of Humboldt University of Berlin found that those taking high doses of riboflavin had significantly fewer migraines.
RDA 1.3 mg Men, 1.1 mg Women One serving of Spirulina 1.7 mg
Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid and pantothenate, is vital to living a healthy life. Like all B complex vitamins, B5 helps the body convert food into energy. B5 is naturally found in many food sources. “Pantothenic,” in fact, means “from everywhere,” because the vitamin is available in so many food sources.
Vitamin B5 provides a multitude of benefits to the human body. It is found in living cells as a coenzyme A (CoA), which is vital to numerous chemical reactions, according to a study published in the journal Vitamins and Hormones.
“Pantothenic acid is typically used in combination with other B vitamins in the form of a vitamin B complex formulation,” said Dr. Sherry Ross, OB/GYN and Women’s Health Expert at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. The other vitamins in the vitamin B complex are vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid, she added.
B vitamins turn carbohydrates into glucose, which is the fuel that produces energy. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, B vitamins also help the body use fat and protein and are also important for maintaining a healthy nervous system, eyes, skin, hair and liver.
Specifically, B5 helps to:
- Create red blood cells
- Create stress-related and sex hormones
- Maintain a healthy digestive tract
- Process other vitamins, particularly B2 (riboflavin)
- Synthesize cholesterol
Vitamin B5, taken as a supplement, has also been found to help with lowering cholesterol. In a 2011 study published in the journal Nutrition Research, researchers at the Princeton Longevity Center in New Jersey found that supplements of pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in subjects with low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk.
Another study at Asahikawa Medical College in Japan found that pantethine might be beneficial in the prevention of diabetic angiopathy. A study by the National Academy of Sciences of Grodno, Belarus also found that pantethine can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.
“Pantothenic acid is used in treating and preventing pantothenic acid deficiency and skin reactions from radiation therapy,” Ross said. “Other health benefits of pantothenic acid that have been suggested but not scientifically proven include improve symptoms related to ADHD, arthritis, athletic performance, skin problems, alcoholism, allergies, hair loss, asthma, heart problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, lung disorders, nerve damage, colitis, eye infections, convulsions, kidney disorders, dandruff, depression, diabetic problems, immune function, headaches, hyperactivity, low blood pressure, insomnia, irritability, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and muscle cramps.”
RDA 5 mg One serving of Spirulina 0.4 mg
Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) is important for normal brain development and for keeping the nervous system and immune system healthy.
Food sources of vitamin B-6 include poultry, fish, potatoes, chickpeas and bananas. Vitamin B-6 can also be taken as a supplement, typically as an oral capsule, tablet or liquid.
People who have kidney disease or conditions that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods (malabsorption syndromes) are more likely to be vitamin B-6 deficient. Certain genetic diseases and some epilepsy medications also can lead to deficiency. This can cause a condition in which you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body’s tissues (anemia), confusion, depression and a weakened immune system.
A vitamin B-6 deficiency is usually coupled with deficiency in other B vitamins, such as folate (vitamin B-9) and vitamin B-12.
RDA 1.3 mg One serving of Spirulina .32 mg
Biotin is one of the B-vitamins, it was once called coenzyme R and vitamin H. The H stands for Haar und Haut, which is German for hair and skin.
Biotin is water-soluble, which means the body doesn’t store it. It has many important functions in the body.
It’s necessary for the function of several enzymes known as carboxylases. These biotin-containing enzymes participate in important metabolic pathways, such as the production of glucose and fatty acids.
A commonly recommended intake is 5 mcg (micrograms) per day in infants and 30 mcg in adults. This goes up to 35 mcg per day in breastfeeding women.
RDA 30 mcg One serving of Spirulina 2 mcg
Inositol, sometimes referred to as vitamin B8, naturally occurs in foods such as fruits, beans, grains and nuts
Your body can also produce inositol from the carbohydrates you eat.
However, research suggests that additional inositol in the form of supplements may have numerous health benefits. .
Though often referred to as vitamin B8, inositol is not a vitamin at all but rather a type of sugar with several important functions.
Inositol plays a structural role in your body as a major component of cell membranes
It also influences the action of insulin, a hormone essential for blood sugar control. In addition, it affects chemical messengers in your brain, such as serotonin and dopamine
It has been estimated that a typical diet in the US contains around 1 gram of inositol per day. Rich sources include grains, beans, nuts and fresh fruits and vegetables
However, supplemental doses of inositol are often higher. Researchers have studied the benefits of doses up to 18 grams per day — with promising results and few side effects.
RDA up to 2 g One serving of Spirulina 26 mg
Folate (vitamin B9) is important in red blood cell formation and for healthy cell growth and function. The nutrient is crucial during early pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spine.
Folate is found mainly in dark green leafy vegetables, beans, peas and nuts. Fruits rich in folate include oranges, lemons, bananas, melons and strawberries. The synthetic form of folate is folic acid. It’s in an essential component of prenatal vitamins and is in many fortified foods such as cereals and pastas.
A diet lacking foods rich in folate or folic acid can lead to a folate deficiency. Folate deficiency can also occur in people who have conditions, such as celiac disease, that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods (malabsorption syndromes).
RDA 400 mcg One serving of Spirulina 4 mcg
The remaining 99% of the body’s calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure and function. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in periods of growth in children and adolescents, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Iron is a mineral vital to the proper function of hemoglobin, a protein needed to transport oxygen in the blood. Iron also has a role in a variety of other important processes in the body.
A shortage of iron in the blood can lead to a range of serious health problems, including iron deficiency anemia. Around 10 million people in the United States have low iron levels, and roughly 5 million of these have been diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia.
Fast facts on iron
- The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) varies between ages, but women who are pregnant require the most.
- Iron promotes healthy pregnancy, increased energy, and better athletic performance. Iron deficiency is most common in female athletes.
- Canned clams, fortified cereals, and white beans are the best sources of dietary iron.
- Too much iron can increase the risk of liver cancer and diabetes.
The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for elemental iron depends on a person’s age and sex. Vegetarians also have different iron requirements.
- 0 to 6 months: 0.27 milligrams (mg)
- 7 to 12 months: 11 mg
- 1 to 3 years: 7 mg
- 4 to 8 years: 10 mg
- 9 to 13 years: 8 mg
- 14 to 18 years: 11 mg
- 19 years and older: 8 mg
- 9 to 13 years: 8 mg
- 14 to 18 years: 15 mg
- 19 to 50 years: 18 mg
- 51 years and older: 8 mg
- During pregnancy: 27 mg
- When lactating between 14 and 18 years of age: 10 mg
- When lactating at older than 19 years: 9 mg
Iron supplements can be helpful when people find it difficult to take in enough iron through only dietary measures, such as in a plant-based diet. It is better to try to consume enough in the diet alone by removing or reducing factors that may hinder iron absorption and consuming iron-rich foods.
Iron helps to preserve many vital functions in the body, including general energy and focus, gastrointestinal processes, the immune system, and the regulation of body temperature.
The benefits of iron often go unnoticed until a person is not getting enough. Iron deficiency anemia can cause fatigue, heart palpitations, pale skin, and breathlessness.
Phosphorus is the second most plentiful mineral in your body. The first is calcium. Your body needs phosphorus for many functions, such as filtering waste and repairing tissue and cells.
Most people get the amount of phosphorus that they need through their daily diets. In fact, it’s more common to have too much phosphorus in your body than too little. Kidney disease or eating too much phosphorus and not enough calcium can lead to an excess of phosphorous.
Phosphorus levels that are too high or too low can cause medical complications, such as heart disease, joint pain, or fatigue.
In addition, phosphorus helps to:
- build strong bones and teeth
- filter out waste in your kidneys
- manage how your body stores and uses energy
- grow, maintain, and repair tissue and cells
- produce DNA and RNA — the body’s genetic building blocks
- balance and use vitamins such as vitamins B and D, as well as other minerals like iodine, magnesium, and zinc
- assist in muscle contraction
- maintain a regular heartbeat
- facilitate nerve conduction
- reduce muscle pain after exercise
Most foods contain phosphorus. Foods that are rich in protein are also excellent sources of phosphorus.
- meat and poultry
- milk and other dairy products
- nuts and seeds
When your diet contains enough calcium and protein, you’ll likely have enough phosphorus. That’s because many of the foods that are high in calcium are also high in phosphorous.
- whole grains
- dried fruit
- carbonated drinks (phosphoric acid is used to produce the carbonation)
Whole grain versions of bread and cereal contain more phosphorus than those made from white flour. However, humans can’t absorb phosphorus in whole grain foods.
The amount of phosphorus you need in your diet depends on your age.
Adults need less phosphorus than children between the ages of 9 to 18, but more than children under 8 years old.
The Linus Pauling Institute recommends the following daily intake:
- adults (19 years and older): 700 mg
- children (9 to 18 years): 1,250 mg
- children (4 to 8 years): 500 mg
- children (1 to 3 years): 460 mg
- infants (7 to 12 months): 275 mg
- infants (0 to 6 months): 100 mg
Few people need to take phosphorus supplements. Most people can get the necessary amount of phosphorus through the foods they eat.
Magnesium plays a role in over 300 enzymatic reactions within the body, including the metabolism of food, synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, and the transmission of nerve impulses.
The human body contains around 25 gram (g) of magnesium, 50 to 60 percent of which is stored in the skeletal system. The rest is present in muscle, soft tissues, and bodily fluids.
Here are some key points about magnesium.
- Magnesium is vital for the proper functioning of hundreds of enzymes.
- Consuming adequate magnesium might help reduce premenstrual symptoms.
- Sunflower seeds, almonds, and shrimp are some of the foods high in magnesium.
- Magnesium supplements can interact with different drugs, so it is best to check with a doctor before taking them.
- Spinach is a good source of magnesium.
- Magnesium is one of seven essential macrominerals.
These are minerals that need to be consumed in relatively large amounts, at least 100 milligrams (mg) per day.
- 19-30 years, 400 mg (men) and 310 mg (women)
- 31 years and older, 420 mg (men) and 320 mg (women)
- For pregnant women age 14-18 years, the RDA is 400 mg; 19-30 years, 350 mg; 31-50 years, 360 mg.
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies.
Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes and it plays a role in immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence and is required for proper sense of taste and smell. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system.
Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Zinc
|0-6 months||2 mg*||2 mg*|
|7-12 months||3 mg||3 mg|
|1-3 years||3 mg||3 mg|
|4-8 years||5 mg||5 mg|
|9-13 years||8 mg||8 mg|
|14-18 years||11 mg||9 mg||12 mg||13 mg|
|19+ years||11 mg||8 mg||11 mg||12 mg|
Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is important for many bodily processes, including cognitive function, a healthy immune system, and fertility in both men and women.
The amount of selenium in food often depends on the selenium concentration of the soil and water where farmers grew or raised the food.
- Selenium is a mineral that plays a role in many bodily functions.
- It may protect against cancer, thyroid problems, cognitive decline, and asthma, but more research is needed.
- Brazil nuts, some fish, brown rice, and eggs are good sources.
- The best source of nutrients is food. Any supplement use should first be discussed with a doctor.
The recommended dietary allowance (includes the total amount of selenium you should get from foods and from any supplements you take. Most people can get their RDA of selenium from food. … The safe upper limit for selenium is 400 micrograms a day in adults. Anything above that is considered an overdose.
Copper is an essential trace mineral necessary for survival. It is found in all body tissues and plays a role in making red blood cells and maintaining nerve cells and the immune system.
Fast facts about copper:
- Copper is necessary for a range of bodily functions.
- Copper deficiency is rare except in specific conditions, such as Menkes disease.
- Copper supplements are not usually necessary and may lead to an imbalance.
- A copper imbalance has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.
- Anyone who is considering copper supplements should first speak to a doctor.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance for adult men and women is 900 µg/day. The median intake of copper from food in the United States is approximately 1.0 to 1.6 mg/day for adult men and women.
Manganese is a trace mineral, which your body needs in small amounts.
Chromium is a mineral that humans require in trace amounts, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal health are not well defined. It is found primarily in two forms: 1) trivalent (chromium 3+), which is biologically active and found in food, and 2) hexavalent (chromium 6+), a toxic form that results from industrial pollution.
Chromium also appears to be directly involved in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, but more research is needed to determine the full range of its roles in the body.
Table 2: Adequate Intakes (AIs) for chromium
|Age||Infants and children
|0 to 6 months||0.2|
|7 to 12 months||5.5|
|1 to 3 years||11|
|4 to 8 years||15|
|9 to 13 years||25||21|
|14 to 18 years||35||24||29||44|
|19 to 50 years||35||25||30||45|
Sodium is an element that the body needs to work properly. Salt contains sodium. The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work properly.
Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium. Drinking water also contains sodium, but the amount depends on the source.
Too much sodium in the diet may lead to:
- High blood pressure in some people
- A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disease
Sodium in the diet (called dietary sodium) is measured in milligrams (mg). Table salt is 40% sodium. One teaspoon (5 milliliters) of table salt contains 2,300 mg of sodium.
- Infants younger than 6 months: 120 mg
- Infants age 6 to 12 months: 370 mg
- Children ages 1 to 3 years: 1,000 mg
- Children ages 4 to 8 years: 1,200 mg
- Children and teens ages 9 to 18 years: 1,500 mg
Eating habits and attitudes about food that are formed during childhood are likely to influence eating habits for life. For this reason, it is a good idea for children to avoid consuming too much sodium.
Potassium is one of the seven essential macrominerals. The human body requires at least 100 milligrams of potassium daily to support key processes.
Fast facts on potassium:
- Adults should be consuming 4,700 milligrams (mg) of potassium a day. However, fewer than two percent of people in the U.S. consume enough potassium.
- Potassium supports blood pressure, cardiovascular health, bone strength, and muscle strength.
- Beet greens, white beans, soy beans, and lima beans are the foods highest in potassium.
- Potassium deficiency can lead to fatigue, weakness, and constipation. It can escalate to paralysis, respiratory failure, and painful gut obstructions.
- Hyperkalemia means that there is too much potassium in the blood, and this can also impact health.
- Potassium is available in supplements, but dietary sources are most healthful.
The Adequate Intake recommendation for potassium is 4,700 milligrams (mg) per day for adults. Most adults do not meet this recommendation.
Essential Amino Acids
Isoleucine is an essential amino acid. This means the body cannot produce it, therefore you need to include it in your diet. This amino acid has many roles within the human body. It is best known for its ability to support blood clotting at wound sites and assisting with muscle tissue repair. L-isoleucine can also help to boost energy levels and improve stamina.
Prior to taking any supplement it is important to first consult with a medical practitioner. For people with impaired kidney or liver function isoleucine may worsen these conditions.
Leucine is one of the three branched chain amino acids and sometimes referred to as the ‘main’ amino acid due to the most popular benefit of BCAAs (muscle building) being mostly due to leucine. Leucine is an activator of the protein known as mTOR, which then induces muscle protein synthesis via S6K; the other two BCAAs may also activate mTOR, but are much weaker than leucine in doing so (and as such, 5g of leucine will be more effective than 5g mixed BCAAs). The leucine metabolite, HMB, is also weaker than leucine at inducing muscle protein synthesis despite being more effective at preserving lean mass from breakdown.
The studies assessing leucine mostly look at muscle protein synthesis when additional leucine is added to the diet or to a test meal, and it appears that leucine is able to reliably increase muscle protein synthesis after test meals. Whether this results in more lean mass over a period of time is somewhat less reliable though, and leucine appears to be more effective at promoting gains in muscle in people with lower dietary protein intake and in the elderly (who tend to have impaired muscle protein synthesis in response to the diet).
The interactions of leucine on glucose are not clear, to be honest. Leucine possesses both blood sugar reducing properties (can release insulin from the pancreas, can directly stimulate glucose uptake into a cell without insulin) but also the opposite (via stimulating S6K, it can inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake). In a cell culture, leucine stimulates glucose uptake for up to 45 minutes and then hinders itself while in living systems acute doses of leucine do not appear to do anything remarkable (some limited evidence that leucine can be rehabilitative in diabetes, but this is preliminary). Isoleucine is a more potent hypoglycemic agent, but to less inhibition of its own actions.
Lysine is a building block for protein. It’s an essential amino acid because your body cannot make it, so you need to obtain it from food.
Methionine is an amino acid that produces several important molecules in your body. These molecules are essential for the proper functioning of your cells.
These important molecules must be made from amino acids that contain sulfur. Of the amino acids used to make proteins in the body, only methionine and cysteine contain sulfur.
Overall, methionine is directly or indirectly involved in many important processes in the body because of the molecules it can become.
Phenylalanine comes in several forms as a supplement:
- L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid. It’s also found in protein in the foods we eat.
- DL-phenylalanine, which contains both the D- and L-form
Some research, mainly from the 1970s and 1980s, offers some support for using it for depression. Several studies also showed that L-phenylalanine plus ultraviolet A light may be helpful for people with vitiligo.
- Products containing aspartame
RDA See Above One serving of Spirulina 1,120 mg
Threonine is an essential amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks the body uses to make proteins. The “essential” amino acids are those that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from the diet.
People use threonine for conditions such as a muscle control disorder marked by involuntary movements and muscle tightness (spasticity), multiple sclerosis (MS), inherited disorders marked by weakness and stiffness in the legs (familial spastic paraparesis or FSP), and Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS), but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
This amino acid aids preventing the breakdown of muscle, because it supplies the muscles with an extra glucose responsible for the energy production during physical activity. Valine is also a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and is known for inhibiting the transport of Tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier.
non essential amino acids
Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and it plays a crucial role as a building block of important proteins.
One serving of Spirulina 1,880 mg
There are plenty of powerful new drugs to help prevent and treat chronic health problems. But we also know that certain nutrients may help, as well. Take arginine, for example. Arginine has gotten lots of attention lately for its potential heart benefits. That’s important because, today, about 85.6 million Americans have some form of cardiovascular disease.
- Wound healing
- Helping the kidneys remove waste products from the body
- Maintaining immune and hormone function
- Dilates and relaxes the arteries
As a natural dietary supplement, arginine has garnered particular attention for its possible heart benefits.
Aspartic acid is a type of amino acid. Amino acids are typically used as building blocks to make protein in the body. One type of aspartic acid, called D-aspartic acid, is not used to make protein but is used in other body functions.
Aspartic acid is commonly used to reduce feelings of tiredness, improve athletic performance, and increase the size and strength of muscles. But there is limited scientific research to support these uses.
One serving of Spirulina 2,440 mg
Cysteine is a nonessential amino acid (protein building block), meaning that cysteine can be made in the human body. Cysteine is one of the few amino acids that contains sulfur . This allows cysteine to bond in a special way and maintain the structure of proteins in the body. Cysteine is a component of the antioxidant glutathione. The body also uses cysteine to produce taurine, another amino acid.
Glutamic acid, is an important amino acid for the synthesis of proteins. The salts and carboxylate anions associated with glutamic acid are referred to as glutamates.
One of its major roles is as an excitatory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system. It is the most common neurotransmitter present in the spinal cord and brain. As a neurotransmitter, this amino acid influences several areas of the brain including the thalamus, brain stem, spinal cord, basal ganglia and pons.
One serving of Spirulina 3,640 mg
Glycine is an amino acid, a building block for protein. It is not considered an “essential amino acid” because the body can make it from other chemicals. A typical diet contains about 2 grams of glycine daily. The primary sources are protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes.
Glycine is used for treating schizophrenia, stroke, sleep problems, cystic fibrosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), metabolic syndrome, and some rare inherited metabolic disorders. It is also used to protect kidneys from the harmful side effects of certain drugs used after organ transplantation as well as the liver from harmful effects of alcohol. Glycine may also be used to reduce the risk of psychosis. Other uses include cancer prevention and memory enhancement.
Some people apply glycine directly to the skin to treat leg ulcers and heal other wounds.
The body uses glycine to make proteins. Glycine is also involved in the transmission of chemical signals in the brain, so there is interest in trying it for schizophrenia and improving memory. Some researchers think glycine may have a role in cancer prevention because it seems to interfere with the blood supply needed by certain tumors.
Histidine is an amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein in our bodies. People use histidine as medicine.
One serving of Spirulina 400 mg
Proline is a cyclic, nonessential amino acid (actually, an imino acid) in humans (synthesized from glutamic acid and other amino acids), Proline is a constituent of many proteins. Found in high concentrations in collagen, proline constitutes almost a third of the residues. Collagen is the main supportive protein of skin, tendons, bones, and connective tissue and promotes their health and healing. (NCI04)
L-serine is an amino acid essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylserine, which is a component of the membrane of brain cells (i.e., neurons). It can be produced in the body, including the brain, but an external supply from the diet is essential in maintaining necessary levels. Although preclinical studies suggest L-serine may inhibit inflammation in the brain, levels of L-serine in humans do not appear to be associated with dementia or cognitive decline. Because L-serine is a naturally occurring amino acid, supplementation is likely safe in moderation.
L-serine is essential for the synthesis of lipids called phosphatidylserine that make up the cell membrane of neurons. It is also essential for growth of neuronal processes. However, it is not clear whether L-serine supplements directly increase L-serine levels in the brain. In a study on traumatic brain injury in small mammals, L-serine treatment helped to protect brain tissue and improve recovery of neurological functions by inhibiting inflammation . Such protective effects have not been confirmed in humans yet.
Tyrosine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body from another amino acid called phenylalanine.
- Dopamine: Dopamine regulates your reward and pleasure centers. This important brain chemical is also important for memory and motor skills (5Trusted Source).
- Adrenaline and noradrenaline: These hormones are responsible for the fight-or-flight response to stressful situations. They prepare the body to “fight” or “flee” from a perceived attack or harm (5Trusted Source).
- Thyroid hormones: Thyroid hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and primarily responsible for regulating metabolism (6Trusted Source).
- Melanin: This pigment gives your skin, hair and eyes their color. Dark-skinned people have more melanin in their skin than light-skinned people (7Trusted Source).
Phycocyanin isolated from marine and fresh water organisms and has the characteristics of high efficiency and low toxicity, and it can be used as a functional food. It has been reported that phycocyanin has anti-oxidative function, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-cancer function, immune enhancement function, liver and kidney protection pharmacological effects. Thus, phycocyanin has an important development and utilization as a potential drug, and phycocyanin has become a new hot spot in the field of drug research. So far, there are more and more studies have shown that phycocyanin has the anti-cancer effect, which can block the proliferation of cancer cells and kill cancer cells. Phycocyanin exerts anti-cancer activity by blocking tumor cell cycle, inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy, thereby phycocyanin can serve as a promising anti-cancer agent.
In the past few decades, natural products have become increasingly important for the application of chemical prevention and treatment for diseases 1. Natural products derived from food or food supplements could be used as drugs in the treatment for diseases, and their chemical prevention and chemotherapy effects have been fully studied. Recently, marine natural products with pharmacological activity have been shown to have potent anti-cancer activity, and have less or no toxic side effects 4. Thus, these natural products have an important development and utilization in recent years. In addition, marine natural products have become one of the most important resources of novel lead compounds for critical diseases. Phycocyanin (PC), a natural extract, has been studied for its anti-cancer effect on malignant solid tumors. In addition, phycocyanin is a toxin on cancer cells while it is non-toxic to normal cells.
Phycocyanin is a biologically active nutrient compound which is isolated and purified from a variety of seaweeds. Phycocyanin obtained from different species, such as Aphanizomenon sp., Spirulina sp., Phormidium sp. , Lyngbya sp., Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus sp., has been separated and studied.
Phycocyanin belongs to the phycobiliprotein (PBP) family, which is characterized by a deep and intense blue color. According to the colored molecules, phycobiliproteins can be divided into three categories: phycoerythrin (PE, PE is red), phycocyanin (PC, PC is blue), and allophycocyanin (AP, AP is bluish green).
Phycocyanin is a kind of photosynthetic assistant protein which can efficiently capture light energy. Phycobiliprotein is one of the components of phycobilisome 15, which is a supramolecular protein complex that auxiliarily collects light energy. Phycobilisome plays an important role in photosynthesis energy absorption and transmission . Phycobiliprotein acts as an antenna molecule in algae photosynthesis, which can absorb light energy and can be capable of efficiently delivering light energy to a reaction center containing chlorophyll by a non-radioactive process .
One serving of Spirulina 5,600 mg
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants. Plants use chlorophyll and light to make food. People use chlorophyll as medicine. Common sources of chlorophyll used for medicine include alfalfa, algae, and silkworm droppings.
Chlorophyll is used for bad breath and reducing colostomy odor. Chlorophyll is also used for constipation, “detoxification,” and wound healing.
Healthcare providers use chlorophyll intravenously for removing skin cancer and for treating a pancreas problem called chronic relapsing pancreatitis.
Chlorophyll is applied to the skin for acne and for removing skin cancer and lesions from herpes infections.
One serving of Spirulina 400 mg
Carotenoids are pigments in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These pigments produce the bright yellow, red, and orange colors in plants, vegetables, and fruits.
Carotenoids act as a type of antioxidant for humans.
There are more than 600 different types of Carotenoids. Some can be converted into vitamin A when released into the body. A few of the most common carotenoids include:
Carotenoids are fat-soluble compounds, meaning they are best absorbed with fat. Unlike some protein-rich foods and vegetables, cooking and chopping carotenoid-rich foods increase the strength of the nutrients when they enter the bloodstream.
Carotenoids are classified into two main groups: xanthophylls and carotenes.
These provitamin A carotenoids include alpha carotene, beta carotene, and beta cryptoxanthin. Non-provitamin A carotenoids include lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene.
Adding more carotenoid-rich foods to your diet can strengthen your immune system and overall health.
While Carotenoids are available in vitamin A supplements, consuming them naturally enhances their antioxidant effects. In addition, supplements can be dangerous if they contain high levels of vitamin A, which can be toxic if you take to0 much
Antioxidants protect cells from free radicals, or substances that destroy or damage cell membranes. Increasing carotenoids via your diet can increase the amount of antioxidants and protective cells in your body. This is significant when battling cancer and may be able to prevent cancer growth.
Carotenoids have been associated with lowering cancer risk, specifically lung cancer. When you smoke cigarettes, you ingest harmful chemicals that destroy healthy cells. Though mixed in results, one study showed a small decrease in risk from lung cancer when incorporating carotenoids into your diet. It is even healthier to stop smoking and increase carotenoids in your diet to help your lungs heal as you move past the addiction.
Similarly, carotenoids have been associated with reducing the risk of skin cancer. Some carotenoids can break down into vitamin A, a nutrient that protects against premature skin damage from sun exposure. Both are risks for melanoma, premature wrinkles, and unhealthy skin.
One serving of Spirulina 148 mg
Gama Linolenic Acid
Gamma linolenic acid is a fatty substance. It’s found in various plant seed oils such as borage oil and evening primrose oil. People use it as medicine.
People use gamma linolenic acid (GLA) for conditions such as arthritis, nerve damage due to diabetes, eczema, high blood pressure, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
Gamma linolenic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid. The body converts gamma linolenic acid to substances that reduce inflammation and cell growth.
Possibly Effective for:
- Nerve damage due to diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Taking gamma linolenic acid by mouth for 6-12 months seems to reduce symptoms and prevent nerve damage in people with nerve pain due to type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Gamma linolenic acid seems to work better in people with good blood sugar control.
One serving of Spirulina 540 mg
Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic (covalent) bond. Their role is to maintain the stability of the cell membrane and to facilitate cellular recognition, which is crucial to the immune response and in the connections that allow cells to connect to one another to form tissues. Glycolipids are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the extracellular environment.
Enzymes called glycosyltransferases link the saccharide to the lipid molecule, and also play a role in assembling the correct oligosaccharide so that the right receptor can be activated on the cell which responds to the presence of the glycolipid on the surface of the cell. The glycolipid is assembled in the Golgi apparatus and embedded in the surface of a vesicle which is then transported to the cell membrane. The vesicle merges with the cell membrane so that the glycolipid can be presented on the cell’s outside surface.
Glycoside hydrolases catalyze the breakage of glycosidic bonds. They are used to modify the oligosaccharide structure of the glycan after it has been added onto the lipid. They can also remove glycans from glycolipids to turn them back into unmodified lipids.
The main function of glycolipids in the body is to serve as recognition sites for cell–cell interactions. The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein), of a neighboring cell. The interaction of these cell surface markers is the basis of cell recognitions, and initiates cellular responses that contribute to activities such as regulation, growth, and apoptosis.
An example of how glycolipids function within the body is the interaction between leukocytes and endothelial cells during inflammation. Selectins, a class of lectins found on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells bind to the carbohydrates attached to glycolipids to initiate the immune response. This binding causes leukocytes to leave circulation and congregate near the site of inflammation. This is the initial binding mechanism, which is followed by the expression of integrins which form stronger bonds and allow leukocytes to migrate toward the site of inflammation. Glycolipids are also responsible for other responses, notably the recognition of host cells by viruses.
Blood types are an example of how glycolipids on cell membranes mediate cell interactions with the surrounding environment. The four main human blood types (A, B, AB, O) are determined by the oligosaccharide attached to a specific glycolipid on the surface of red blood cells, which acts as an antigen. The unmodified antigen, called the H antigen, is the characteristic of type O, and is present on red blood cells of all blood types. Blood type A has an N-acetylgalactosamine added as the main determining structure, type B has a galactose, and type AB has all three of these antigens. Antigens which are not present in an individual’s blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. For this reason, people with blood type AB can receive transfusions from all blood types (the universal acceptor), and people with blood type O can act as donors to all blood types (the universal donor).
The sulfolipids/sulfatides are also members of the acylated trehalose family. Sulfolipids were originally isolated from M. tuberculosis by Middlebrook et al. (1959) and chemically defined by Goren and Brennan (1979). All of these are tri- or tetra-acylated trehalose-2-sulfate. The acyl functions of the sulfatides may be either palmitate, stearate, phthioceranate or hydroxyphthioceranate (Brennan, 1988) (Figure 9.3). These lipids were originally believed to inhibit phagosome–lysosome fusion (Goren et al., 1976), however, later evidence suggested that sulfatides inhibited phagosome activation (Pabst et al., 1988).
One serving of Spirulina 40 mg
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Linoleic acid keeps the skin impermeable to water, but to exert other effects the compound must undergo specific metabolism. First step is conversion to gama-linolenic acid by delta-6-desaturation. Gama-linolenic acid is subsequently converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, which is in turn converted to arachidonic acid.
Arachidonic acid can form prostaglandins and thromboxanes – hormone-like lipids that promote blood clotting, induce inflammation and cause smooth muscle contraction. In alternative pathway it can also form leukotrienes, which are one of the most potent inflammatory agents in the human organism.
The necessity of metabolism is reflected by the increasing potency of each substance in the form of an essential fatty acid, as it moves down the chain from linoleic to arachidonic acid; hence to achieve full range of activities, linoleic acid must be metabolized to other substances. Therefore it can be considered as analogous to provitamines.
In infants, delta-6-desaturase is too immature to provide the desired metabolism of linoleic acid, which is a reason why human milk contains gamma-linoleic acid, dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. In contrast, conventional infant formula milks have only linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, which can lead to a deficiency state in formula-fed infants.
One serving of Spirulina 388 mg